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        研究與倡導

        當前位置:首頁 >  社會影響  > 研究與倡導 >  為什么中國會出現——“留守兒童”現象?

        為什么中國會出現——“留守兒童”現象?

         留守兒童”是指外出務工連續三個月以上的農民托留在戶籍所在地家鄉,由父、母單方或其他親屬監護接受義務教育的適齡兒童少年。雙親留守兒童:父母雙方都在外地打工,由其他親屬監護。單親留守兒童:父母一方外出打工,由另一方監護或者其他親屬監護。

        留守兒童已經成為一個突出的社會問題。隨著中國社會政治經濟的快速發展,越來越多的青壯年農民走入城市,在廣大農村也隨之產生了一個特殊的未成年人群體——農村留守兒童。他們的父母為了生計遠走他鄉離開年幼的孩子,外出打工,用勤勞獲取家庭收入,為經濟發展和社會穩定作出了貢獻,但他們卻被留在了農村的家里,與父母相伴的時間微乎其微。

        這些本應是父母掌上明珠的兒童,集中起來便成了一個特殊的群體———留守兒童。留守的少年兒童正處于成長發育的關鍵時期,他們無法享受到父母在思想認識及價值觀念上的引導和幫助,成長中缺少了父母情感上的關心和呵護,相對來說容易走向發展的兩個極端,有的孩子產生認識、價值上的偏離和個性、心理發展的異常,也有的孩子變得異常堅強和勇敢,所謂窮人的孩子早當家即是如此。

        2016年3月底以來,民政部、教育部、公安部在全國范圍內聯合開展農村留守兒童摸底排查工作。截至目前,不滿十六周歲的農村留守兒童數量為902萬人。其中,由(外)祖父母監護的805萬人,占89.3%;由親戚朋友監護的30萬人,占3.3%;一方外出務工另一方無監護能力的31萬人,占3.4%。有36萬農村留守兒童無人監護,占4%。

        留守兒童多由祖輩照顧,父母監護教育角色的缺失,對留守兒童的全面健康成長造成不良影響,“隔代教育”問題在“留守兒童”群體中最為突出。據調查顯示,父母外出打工后,與自己的孩子聚少離多,溝通少,遠遠達不到其作為監護人的角色要求,而隔代教育又有諸多不盡如人意處。80%以上的留守兒童是由祖父母隔代監護和親友臨時監護,年事已高、文化素質較低的祖輩監護人基本沒有能力輔導和監督孩子學習。留守兒童關愛不夠,監護不力,疏于照顧,是留守兒童群體面臨的一個普遍問題。

        那么為什么中國會出現留守兒童這個群體呢?

        一、由于地理和歷史等原因,我國不同區域的經濟發展很不平衡,農村人地矛盾尖銳。因為中國的城鄉經濟發展差距較大,區域之間發展不平衡,因此會產生很多由欠發達地區到發達地區的勞動力流動,而這些勞動力集中在青壯年群體上,他們又無法負擔起發達地區較高的生活和教育成本,許多孩子只能留在老家,因此產生許多留守兒童。在市場經濟迅猛發展的推動下,大量農村剩余勞動力為改變生存狀況外出務工,因積分入學政策,戶籍制度等原因無法將子女帶在身邊,由此引發“留守兒童”的問題。

        二、中國農村留守兒童現象的產生來自于家庭和社會兩個方面。一方面,家庭的貧困,使孩子的父母不得不走出農村到城市務工;另一方面,中國長期的城鄉二元體系松動造成我國農村大量剩余勞動力向城市轉移過程中所帶來的附屬物——“制度性孤兒”,以及社會對“農民工”不公平的待遇,使廣大農民沒有辦法及能力帶著孩子一起走進城市。原因很簡單,三座新的大山正壓在當下農村父母身上:1、改善住房條件;2、支付過高的生活成本;3、孩子的教育開支。一方面:他們的父母到城里打工拼命掙錢,獲得了另一種生存方式;另一方面,他們又因為在城市里,或自身難保,或無立錐之地,無法將他們的子女帶進城里,留在自己的身邊。同時為了生活或生存,他們不能夠輕易的離開自己的工作,不能輕易的離開城市,就是在這種帶不出與回不去的雙重矛盾中,留守兒童雖然有父母,但是他們依然不得不接受“骨肉分離”的現實。

        三、戶籍制度、住房制度、入學制度的限制。在美國,可能沒有留守兒童這個概念。因為美國人有遷徙自由,就是不受農村戶口,城市戶口的限制。在中國,鄉村人口進入城市打工,孩子的戶口不能進入城市,因此就不能讀書,只能被留守,不能享受與戶口相關的利益。由于戶籍的限制,農民工的子女在城市的學校上學基本上是不可能的,即使有學校接收,其父母也很難承受高額的費用。而城市中那些面向農民工子女的學校基本上都是民間興辦的,其教學質量無法和城市學校相比如果家長帶著孩子出去打工,那么孩子就會失去讀書的機會,如果不能讀書,那么打工的命運永遠都不能改變。

        四、法律制度的缺失。在美國有法律強制,兒童在小時候,必須由成年人監護(特別是父母),否則就是違法。中國可能沒有這樣的法律強制,年齡很小的兒童就被留守了,而且監護人的選擇,父母的隨意性比較大。目前,國內還沒有法律去判斷,監護人是否有監護能力,是否履行了監護人的義務、監護的行為是否到位等等。法律的空白亟待填補。

        不可否認的是,當前中國正處于社會重大轉型時期,又處于社會矛盾凸顯期。由于經濟發展模式轉換、體制深層次改革和全方位對外開放正在加速轉型,導致我國社會管理的風險和難度加大,社會管理領域的問題不斷凸顯。找到到問題的根源所在,就更利于問題的解決。我們現在不僅需要關注留守兒童問題,更需要努力減少留守兒童群體的數量,當然中國正在努力。

        留守兒童問題的解決,需要社會、家庭、父母共同攜手,合力出擊,需要制度、法律體系不斷的完善。比如, 1、政府可以鼓勵企業下基層,去西部,鼓勵農民回家鄉創業,減少農民工的數量。2、進入大城市工作的人,有了一定的積分,就可以有城市戶口,也可以把孩子帶來;3、未來中國需要立法,就是孩子在一定年齡以下,父母必須履行監護人義務,至少是一個人。如果父母選擇其他監護人,國家必須強制性評估,該監護人是否有監護能力,是否履行了監護人的義務。否則國家可以強制性禁止父母一起去打工,或者國家強制性指定監護人。

        每一個寶貝,都值得我們給予溫暖的關注!

        關于孩子的問題,我們都不應該忽視!

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